The Fundamentals of Investing in Gold







In addition, a number of reserve banks have contributed to their present gold reserves, reflecting issues about the long-term international economy. The reasons for gold’s importance in the contemporary economy centers on the fact that it has successfully preserved wealth throughout countless generations. The same, however, can not be said about paper-denominated currencies.

Let’s state that at that time, you had an option of either holding an ounce of gold or simply keeping the $35. They would both purchase you the same things, like a brand new business match or elegant bicycle. Nevertheless, if you had an ounce of gold today and transformed it for today’s rates, it would still be sufficient to purchase a brand name new suit, but the very same can not be said for the $35.

The concept that gold maintains wealth is much more essential in a financial environment where investors are confronted with a decreasing U.S. dollar and rising inflation. Historically, gold has functioned as a hedge against both of these circumstances. With increasing inflation, gold normally values. When financiers realize that their money is declining, they will begin positioning their financial investments in a difficult property that has actually typically preserved its worth.

Things about Investing In Gold Bullion

The reason gold gain from a declining U.S. dollar is because gold is priced in U.S. dollars internationally. There are 2 factors for this relationship. First, financiers who are taking a look at purchasing gold (i. e., reserve banks) should sell their U.S. dollars to make this deal. This eventually drives the U.S.

The second reason pertains to the fact that a weakening dollar makes gold more affordable for financiers who hold other currencies. This leads to greater need from financiers who hold currencies that have actually valued relative to the U.S. dollar. Whether it is the stress in the Middle East, Africa or elsewhere, it is becoming progressively obvious that political and economic unpredictability is another truth of our contemporary economic environment.

Why is this? Well, history has lots of collapsing empires, political coups, and the collapse of currencies. Throughout such times, financiers who held gold were able to successfully protect their wealth and, in many cases, even utilize the product to get away from all of the chaos. As a result, whenever there are news occasions that mean some type of worldwide economic uncertainty, financiers will frequently buy gold as a safe sanctuary.

Investing In Gold Things To Know Before You Get This

It is clear that gold has actually historically served as a financial investment that can include a diversifying component to your portfolio, regardless of whether you are fretted about inflation, a declining U.S. dollar, or perhaps securing your wealth. If your focus is merely diversity, gold is not correlated to stocks, bonds, and property.

Gold stocks usually rise and fall with the cost of gold, but there are well-managed mining companies that are lucrative even when the price of gold is down. Increases in the price of gold are frequently magnified in gold stock costs. A reasonably little increase in the rate of gold can cause substantial gains in the best gold stocks and owners of gold stocks usually get a much greater roi (ROI) than owners of physical gold. A business’s capability to sustain healthy dividend payments is greatly enhanced if it has consistently low financial obligation levels and strong capital, and the historic trend of the business’s performance reveals gradually improving financial obligation and capital figures. Considering that any business goes through growth and expansion cycles when it handles more debt and has a lower cash on hand balance, it’s essential to analyze their long-lasting figures instead of a shorter financial picture timeframe.

Gold has underperformed compared to the S&P 500 in the 10-year period ending Jan. 26, 2018, with the S&P GSCI index producing 3. 27% compared to the The S&P 500, which has actually returned 10. 36% over the same duration. That said, gold trounced the S&P 500 in the 10-year period from November 2002 to October 2012, with an overall price gratitude of 441.

Gold Investments Fundamentals Explained

4% annually. The S&P 500, on the other hand, appreciated by 58% over this duration. The point here is that gold is not always a good investment. The finest time to invest in almost any possession is when there is negative belief and the asset is inexpensive, providing significant upside prospective when it goes back to favor, as suggested above.

Ideas on Investing in Gold Bullion








Investors interested in a more liquid and inexpensive entry into the gold market may rather consider shared funds and exchange-traded funds that replicate the movements of the commodity. SPDR Gold Shares (GLD), for instance, is among the earliest ETFs of its kind, started in 2004. Shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange and can be purchased or offered at at any time throughout the trading day, much like stock.

For instance, if gold is trading near $1,300 an ounce, the gold ETF will trade for roughly $130 per share. GLD invests solely in bullion, providing investors direct exposure to the metal’s rate relocations. Other funds invest both in bullion and in shares of publicly traded business in the organization of gold mining, refining, or production.

Investing In Gold Can Be Fun For Everyone

Individual companies are also subject to problems unassociated to bullion pricessuch as political elements or ecological concerns. So purchasing an ETF that owns gold stocks is a higher-risk method to play, however it does use appreciation potentialwhich investing in bullion does not. More knowledgeable investors who do not desire to run the risk of a lot of capital might think about choices on gold futures or choices on a gold ETF.

Options can be used whether you believe the rate of gold is going up or decreasing. If you guess wrong, the optimum threat related to buying alternatives is the premium you paid to get in the contract. Readily available in the U.S. through the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, put and call alternatives on gold futures can be bought and offered through a futures broker.

The Best Strategy To Use For Investing In Gold

Meanwhile, some traders purchase and offer gold futures contractswhich trade on CME under the symbol GCto speculate on short-term relocations higher or lower in the yellow metal. If you can’t get your hands straight on any gold, you can always want to gold mining stocks. Keep in mind however, that gold stocks do not always relocate concert with bullion rates, since mining companies prosper or fail based upon their private operating efficiency and how they deploy their capital and create earnings.

If you’re purchasing gold as part of a portfolio diversity strategy, ETFs are the very best method to go. If you want security in case of a system-wide crisis, you ‘d wish to own the physical metal.

The 3-Minute Rule for Investing In Gold Bullion

Investors can purchase gold through exchange-traded funds (ETFs), buying stock in gold miners and associated business, and purchasing physical item. These financiers have as numerous factors for investing in the metal as they do approaches to make those financial investments. Some argue that gold is a barbaric antique that no longer holds the monetary qualities of the past.

They contend that gold’s only advantage is the fact that it is a material that is used in precious jewelry. On the other end of the spectrum are those that assert gold is an asset with various intrinsic qualities that make it special and required for financiers to hold in their portfolios.

The 9-Second Trick For Gold Investments

Gold is viewed as a hedge against inflation and a shop of value through thick and through thin. Holding gold, nevertheless, features unique costs and threats, and the data reveal that traditionally gold has actually dissatisfied on numerous of its purported virtues. In order to fully comprehend the purpose of gold, one must recall to the start of the gold market.

that gold started to serve as a currency. At that time, merchants desired to develop a standardized and quickly transferable form of cash that would streamline trade. The production of a gold coin stamped with a seal seemed to be the answer, as gold fashion jewelry was already widely accepted and recognized throughout numerous corners of the earth.

Our Investing In Gold Bullion Diaries

The British pound (representing a pound of sterling silver), shillings and pence were all based on the quantity of gold (or silver) that it represented. Eventually, gold signified wealth throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The U.S. government continued on with this gold tradition by establishing a bimetallic requirement in 1792.

had to be backed by either gold or silver. For example, one U.S. dollar was the equivalent of 24. 75 grains of gold. In other words, the coins that were utilized as money simply represented the gold (or silver) that was currently deposited at the bank. But this gold requirement did not last permanently.

Getting The Gold Investments To Work

In 1913, the Federal Reserve was created and begun issuing promissory notes (today day version of our paper currency) that could be redeemed in gold as needed. The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 provided the U.S. federal government title to all the gold coins in circulation and put an end to the minting of any new gold coins.

Investing in Gold






That’s not materially different from owning mining stocks directly, however you ought to keep this factor in mind, since not all fund names make this clear. (For instance, the Fidelity Select Gold Portfolio likewise invests in business that mine silver and other valuable metals.) Costs for actively managed funds, meanwhile, can be materially greater than those of index-based items.

Keep in mind that expense ratios can vary greatly between funds. Also, when you buy shares of an actively managed shared fund, you are relying on that the fund supervisors can invest beneficially on your behalf. That does not constantly exercise as planned. For a lot of financiers, buying stock in a streaming and royalty business is probably the finest well-rounded alternative for buying gold.

They resemble specialized finance companies that make money in gold, enabling them to prevent a number of the headaches and risks related to running a mine. Benefits of such business consists of widely diversified portfolios, contractually built-in low costs that cause broad margins in good years and bad, and exposure to gold price modifications (given that streaming business earn money by selling the gold they purchase from the miners).

A Biased View of Investing In Gold

( Franco-Nevada, the biggest streaming and royalty company, likewise has exposure to oil and gas drilling.) So you’ll need to do a little research to completely understand what product direct exposures you’ll obtain from your investment. And while streaming business prevent a lot of the threats of running a mine, they don’t totally sidestep them: If a mine isn’t producing any gold, there’s absolutely nothing for a streaming company to purchase.

That has actually enabled the success of banners to hold up better than miners’ when gold rates are falling. This is the crucial aspect that provides streaming business an edge as a financial investment. They provide direct exposure to gold, they use development potential via the financial investment in new mines, and their wide margins through the cycle provide some downside defense when gold prices fall.

There’s no ideal method to own gold: Each choice features trade-offs. That said, probably the finest strategy for many people is to buy stock in streaming and royalty companies. Nevertheless, what to purchase is simply one piece of the puzzle: There are other factors that you require to think about.

Unknown Facts About Investing In Gold Bullion

The real advantage, for brand-new and knowledgeable financiers alike, comes from the diversification that gold can offer. When you have actually developed your gold position, ensure to regularly balance your portfolio so that your relative exposure to it stays the same. It’s best to purchase little quantities in time. When gold prices are high, the rate of gold-related stocks increases also.

By buying a little at a time, you can dollar-cost average into the position. As with any financial investment, there’s no one-size-fits-all answer for how you need to purchase gold. However equipped with the knowledge of how the gold market works, what each type of investment involves, and what to consider when weighing your choices, you can make the choice that’s right for you.

In general, investors aiming to buy gold straight have 3 options: they can buy the physical property, they can buy shares of a mutual or exchange-traded fund (ETF) that duplicates the rate of gold, or they can trade futures and alternatives in the products market. Typical investors, for instance, may buy gold coins, while sophisticated investors carry out strategies using options on gold futures.

5 Simple Techniques For Gold Investments

Purchasing gold bullion for people takes the type of gold bars or coins. Shared funds and exchange-traded funds that purchase the valuable metal or shares of mining companies provide a more liquid and affordable method to invest. More sophisticated investors may trade gold futures or futures choices. Compared to other products, gold is more accessible to the typical financier, due to the fact that an individual can quickly buy gold bullion (the real yellow metal, in coin or bar type), from a rare-earth elements dealership or, in some cases, from a bank or brokerage.

Not to be puzzled with vintage numismatic coins, these are brand-new problems priced on their gold material, plus a premium. For maximum liquidity, most purchasers stick to the most extensively distributed gold coins, including the South African Krugerrand, the American Eagle, and the Canadian Maple Leaf. Whatever you prefer, be sure you are purchasing from a respectable dealer, either in person or through the web.

Make certain to insure them, too. Gold jewelry likewise permits the investor in gold to also experience the satisfaction of wearing it. Gold is often combined with other precious gems and metals to improve the overall worth and look of the precious jewelry. Pieces are frequently given to the next generation as household treasures, adding sentimental worth beyond that of the piece itself.

The Ultimate Guide to Gold Investments







This likewise presumes you’re discussing gold precious jewelry of a minimum of 10 karat. (Pure gold is 24 karat.) Exceptionally costly precious jewelry might hold its value, however more due to the fact that it is a collector’s product than since of its gold content. These are the finest option for owning physical gold. Nevertheless, there are markups to think about.

Likewise, a lot of coin dealerships will add a markup to their costs to compensate them for functioning as intermediaries. Perhaps the finest option for a lot of investors looking to own physical gold is to purchase gold bullion directly from the U.S. Mint, so you know you are handling a reputable dealership.

That might indicate leasing a safe deposit box from the regional bank, where you might wind up paying a continuous expense for storage. Offering, meanwhile, can be tough considering that you have to bring your gold to a dealership, who might provide you a price that’s listed below the existing spot rate.

These notes are generally for unallocated gold, suggesting there’s no specific gold associated with the certificate, however the company says it has enough to back all exceptional certificates. You can purchase allocated gold certificates, but the costs are higher. The big problem here is that the certificates are actually just as excellent as the company backing them, sort of like banks before FDIC insurance coverage was produced.

4 Easy Facts About Investing In Gold Described

That said, if you’re going to just purchase a paper representation of gold, you might wish to think about exchange-traded funds rather. If you don’t particularly appreciate holding the gold you own but desire direct exposure to the metal, then an exchange-traded fund (ETF) like is probably the way to go.

You’ll likely need to pay a commission to trade an ETF, and there will be a management cost (SPDR Gold Share’s expense ratio is 0. 40%), however you’ll take advantage of a liquid asset that invests directly in gold coins, bullion, and bars. Another way to own gold indirectly, futures contracts are a highly leveraged and dangerous option that is improper for newbies.

Essentially, a futures contract is a contract between a buyer and a seller to exchange a defined amount of gold at a specified future date and rate. As gold rates go up and down, the worth of the agreement fluctuates, with the accounts of the seller and buyer changed appropriately.

The most significant issue: Futures contracts are generally purchased with just a small fraction of the overall contract cost. For example, a financier might just need to put down 20% of the full expense of the gold managed by the contract. This produces leverage, which increases a financier’s potential gains– and losses.

The Ultimate Guide To Gold Investments

Futures agreements are a complex and time-consuming financial investment that can materially amplify gains and losses. Although they are a choice, they are high-risk and not suggested for novices. One significant concern with a direct investment in gold is that there’s no growth potential. An ounce of gold today will be the same ounce of gold 100 years from now.

This is why some investors turn to mining stocks. Their costs tend to follow the costs of the commodities on which they focus; however, due to the fact that miners are running businesses that can expand over time, financiers can benefit from increasing production. This can provide benefit that owning physical gold never ever will.

Mines do not constantly produce as much gold as expected, workers in some cases go on strike, and catastrophes like a mine collapse or fatal gas leak can stop production and even cost lives. All in all, gold miners can perform better or worse than gold– depending upon what’s going on at that particular miner.

That’s a function of the way gold is discovered in nature, in addition to diversity decisions on the part of the mining business’s management. If you’re trying to find a varied financial investment in valuable and semiprecious metals, then a miner that produces more than just gold could be seen as a net favorable.

Getting The Gold Investments To Work

Possible investors need to pay close attention to a company’s mining costs, existing mine portfolio, and growth opportunities at both existing and new possessions when picking which gold mining stocks to buy. If you’re trying to find a single financial investment that provides broadly diversified direct exposure to gold miners, then low-priced index-based ETFs like and are an excellent option.

53% and 0. 54%, respectively. As you research study gold ETFs, look carefully at the index being tracked, paying specific attention to how it is built, the weighting method, and when and how it gets rebalanced. All are essential pieces of information that are simple to ignore when you presume that a simple ETF name will equate into a simple investment method.

Introduction to Gold Investing






Picture yourself sitting in a stream swirling water in a pan, frantically hoping to see a little yellow glint of gold and imagining striking it rich. America has come a long method since the early 1850s, but gold still holds a popular place in our global economy today. Here’s a detailed introduction to gold, from why it’s important and how we get it to how to purchase it, the threats and advantages of each approach, and recommendations on where newbies should begin.

It was also difficult to dig gold out of the ground– and the more tough something is to get, the higher it is valued. In time, human beings began using the rare-earth element as a method to help with trade and collect and keep wealth. In fact, early paper currencies were normally backed by gold, with every printed costs corresponding to a quantity of gold held in a vault somewhere for which it could, technically, be exchanged (this seldom taken place).

Nowadays, modern-day currencies are largely fiat currencies, so the link between gold and fiat money has long been broken. However, individuals still enjoy the yellow metal. The biggest demand industry without a doubt is jewelry, which accounts for around 50% of gold demand. Another 40% comes from direct physical investment in gold, consisting of that used to produce coins, bullion, medals, and gold bars.

The Single Strategy To Use For Gold Investments

It is various than numismatic coins, antiques that trade based upon demand for the particular kind of coin rather than its gold content.) Financiers in physical gold include people, reserve banks, and, more just recently, exchange-traded funds that buy gold on behalf of others. Gold is often considered as a ” safe-haven” investment.

This is one of the factors that investors tend to rise the price of gold when financial markets are unpredictable. Given that gold is an excellent conductor of electrical power, the remaining need for gold originates from market, for use crazes such as dentistry, heat guards, and tech gizmos. Gold is a commodity that trades based upon supply and demand.

The demand for fashion jewelry is fairly continuous, though financial declines do, undoubtedly, result in some temporary decreases in need from this industry. The need from investors, including reserve banks, however, tends to inversely track the economy and financier belief. When financiers are fretted about the economy, they frequently buy gold, and based on the boost in demand, press its price greater.

Investing In Gold for Dummies

Gold is really quite abundant in nature however is difficult to extract. For instance, seawater consists of gold– but in such little quantities it would cost more to draw out than the gold would be worth. So there is a big distinction between the accessibility of gold and just how much gold there remains in the world.

Advances in extraction techniques or materially higher gold costs could shift that number. Gold has been discovered near undersea thermal vents in amounts that suggest it may be worth drawing out if costs increased high enough. Image source: Getty Images. Although panning for gold was a common practice throughout the California Gold Rush, nowadays it is mined from the ground.

Therefore, a miner may actually produce gold as a by-product of its other mining efforts. Miners start by discovering a location where they believe gold lies in big adequate quantities that it can be economically obtained. Then local governments and companies have to grant the business approval to construct and operate a mine.

Excitement About Gold Investments

The response depends partly on how you purchase gold, however a peek at gold costs relative to stock costs during the bearishness of the 2007-2009 recession supplies a telling example. Between Nov. 30, 2007, and June 1, 2009, the index fell 36%. The rate of gold, on the other hand, rose 25%.

How to Invest in Gold

Gold has a long history as a secure investment that dates back millenia. Unlike many other investment types, gold never loses all of its value. Even though the price of it often fluctuates, it always remains a very valuable material. Gold is also normally very easy to sell, and sells quickly. There’s a widespread interest in investing in gold bullion, and in how one goes about it. and Bullion Vault are two companies which offer the opportunity to buy, sell, and store gold bullion, along with silver and platinum, and Goldbroker also offers palladium. Here’s what the process entails.
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The investor starts by opening an account through the website of Goldbroker or Bullion Vault. There’s no charge to open the account, and both companies offer both personal and company accounts. Once the account is opened, the two companies differ on what to do next. With Goldbroker, the account has to be verified before it’s funded, whereas with Bullion Vault, the account is funded before it’s verified.

The account verification is done at Goldbroker by providing them with idenfitication and proof of address. For a company account, the idenfitication and proof of address is required from the CEO, and additional documents are also needed, including the certificate of incorporation or registration, memorandum and article of association, certificate of incumbency, description of the company’s activities and origin of the funds, and the banking information.

For Bullion Vault, the account verification is done by providing a copy of a photo ID and a bank statement from the account from which the wire transfer was made funding the account. Bullion Vault warns that deposits and withdrawals to the Bullion Vault account can only be made to and from the bank account from which the initial deposit was made. Unlike Goldbroker which asks for numerous documents for a business account, Bullion Vault only asks for proof of the business as a legal entity such as a certificate of incorporation.

With Goldbroker, once the account has been validated, Goldbroker will help the investor put together an investment roadmap. At this point, the investor sends the funds to Goldbroker by wire transfer. After Goldbroker receives the funds, which takes from 1 to 5 business days depending on the location of the investor, Goldbroker sends the investor a confirmation that they’ve received it, and then fulfils the order based on the investment roadmap.

The bullion will be stored in vaults in New York, Toronto, Zurich, or Singapore, depending on the investor’s preference. The investor also has the option of storing the bullion divided amongst more than one location. Storage fees range from 0.95% to 1.5% per year. If less than €20,000 worth of bullion is being stored, there’s a storage account maintenance fee of €110 per year. The investor receives ownership certificates which verify ownership and which list the serial numbers of the bars and/or coins. Alternately, investors who are based in the US or in France can have the bullion shipped to them to store at home.

The minimum investment amount at Goldbroker is €10,000 ($12,374 US, based on the exchange rate in April, 2018). Accounts are available for residents and companies located in the vast majority of countries in the world, and transactions are accepted in Euros, US dollars, British pounds, and Swiss francs.

Unlike many bullion providers, Bullion Vault offers the option of investing in smaller amounts of precious metals, starting at one gram. Bullion Vault accepts deposits in US dollars, Euros, British pounds, and Japanese Yen. Once the account is funded and validated, the investor can buy the bullion directly through Bullion Vault’s website. Bullion Vault also offers a Regular Gold Investment Plan, in which the investor makes monthly payments, and the gold is bought automatically.

Bullion Vault offers the investor the choice of storing the bullion in vaults in London, Zurich, New York, Toronto, or Singapore. Commissions are a maximum of 0.5% and the storage fees are 0.12% for gold, with a minimum of $4 per month. Bullion Vault also offers the option of a service in which they will send you an SMS for any withdrawals, so that you’ll instantly know if there are any unauthorized withdrawals.

Both Goldbroker and Bullion Vault offer the opportunity to sell the gold through them when the time comes. With Goldbroker, the investor places a sell order through the account’s messaging service for the items that he wants to sell. Goldbroker sends the investor a confirmation that he has to sign and send back in order for the bullion to be removed from the vault. Once Goldbroker has sold it, they send the money to the investor by wire transfer. Goldbroker charges a sales commision of 1% with a minimum commission of €75.

With Bullion Vault, the investor can either place a sell order to sell it at the best price or offer the bullion at his own price on the live order board. As with Goldbroker, withdrawals from the account are sent by wire transfer.

That was a brief overview of how gold is bought, stored, and sold by investors. More information is available on the websites of Goldbroker and Bullion Vault.









Review of

When people think of investing in precious metals, they normally think of directly buying bullion. Bars and coins are a solid object that almost never loses all of its value. is one company which offers the opportunity to invest in bullion outside of the banking system.

gold bars offers bars and coins of gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. There’s an assortment of one ounce bars and coins for platinum and palladium, while the choices for gold and silver range from one ounce coins and bars up to larger bars which weigh a kilogram.

The metals have a guaranteed purity of at least 99,5%, and come from reputable suppliers like the Royal Canadian Mint, the US Mint, and the Austrian Mint.

The minimum investment in 10,000 € and it’s possible to buy and sell with them in euros, US dollars, British pounds, or Swiss francs.

A major advantage that Goldbroker offers is the option of storing your metals in any one of a variety of vaults in Zurich, New York, Singapore, or Toronto. You can visit the vault in person if you want to inspect the metals or withdraw them. Alternately, you can have the metals securely shipped to your home if you live in the US or in France.

When the time comes to cash in on your investment, Goldbroker offers guaranteed buyback on the metals which are stored in its vaults.

Anybody who is considering investing in precious metals might want to take a look at Goldbroker.


Gold Stocks

Investing in gold mining companies is one way to invest in gold which pays dividends. Stocks also have the advantage that one can invest with a lower amount than would usually be needed to invest in bullion. These are a number of companies which offer the opportunity to invest in gold stocks, all of which make up the Arca Gold BUGS Index:

Agnico Eagle Mines Ltd. (AEM): This gold mining company is based in Toronto and operates nine goldmines. Besides its activities in Ontario and Quebec, they’re also mining in Finland and Mexico.

Anglogold Ashanti (AU): This South African company is the third-largest gold producer in the world. It operates a total of 16 mines in Africa, South America, Australia, and the US.

AuRico Metals (AMI): Aurico Metals is headquarted in Halifax and operates two mines in Mexico along with a mine and an exploration project in Canada. Formerly known as AuRico Gold (AUQ), this company became AuRico Metals after recently merging with Alamos Gold.

Barrick Gold Corporation (ABX): Based in Toronto, the Barrick Gold Corporation is the largest gold mining company in the world. Barrick Gold also mines silver and copper. Barrick Gold operates mines in North and South America, Africa, Australia, and Saudi Arabia.

Buenaventura (BVN): This Peruvian company operates nine mines in Peru and controls over 40% of the largest gold mine in South America. Buenaventura also mines other metals, including silver.

Eldorado Gold (EGO): This Canadian company operates mines in Romania, Greece, Turkey, Canada, and Brazil. One of its mines is the largest gold mine in Turkey.

Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold (FCX): A US-based company headquartered in Phoenix, Freeport-McMoRan is listed on the S&P 500 and operates mines on three continents. Freeport-McMoRan has 9 mines in North America and 2 mines in South America which produce copper and/or molybdenum. They also operate the Grasberg mine in Indonesia, which is one of the world’s largest goldmines, and also produces copper.

Goldcorp (GG): A Canadian company based in Vancouver which operates 10 mines throughout the Americas, including the Peñasquito Mine in Mexico, which produces silver, zinc, and lead along with gold.

Gold Fields Ltd (GFI): A South African company based in Johannesburg, Gold Fields Ltd has 9 gold mines divided between South Africa, Ghana, Australia, and Peru.

Harmony Gold (HMY): The third-largest gold mining company in South Africa operates eleven mines there, and has a 50% interest in a mine in Papua New Guinea.

Kinross Gold Corp. (KGC): Based in Toronto, Kinross Gold operates mines in the USA, Canada, Brazil, Chile, Ghana, Mauratania, and Russia.

New Gold (NGD): New Gold is based in Canada and operates four mines spread amongst Canada, Australia, Mexico, and the USA.

Newport Mining Corporation (NMNNULL): Newport Mining is the second largest gold producer in the world and is headquartered in Denver. It operates mines in Canada, Bolivia, Australia, Ghana, Indonesia, New Zealand, Turkey, Peru, and Uzbekistan. This company also mines copper, silver, and zinc.

Randgold Resources (RRS on the London stock exchange): This Jersey company operates five gold mines in Africa.

Sibanye Stillwater (SBGL): This South African mining company operates five gold mines and a platinum mine in South Africa, and also produces uranium.

Yamana Gold Inc. (AUY): Yamana Gold is based in Toronto and operates mines in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico which produce gold, copper, and silver.